On the Korean peninsula climatic conditions are dominated

On the Korean peninsula, climatic conditions are dominated seasonally by monsoons. During winter months, strong north to northwesterly winds are accompanied by minimal precipitation. Conversely, summer months typically experience relatively weak south to southeasterly winds, heavy precipitation, and occasional typhoons (Chang, 2004). This seasonal variability in Flupirtine results in a predominance of freshwater releases from the dam during summer months. Discharge data from 1997 to 2013 reveals that nearly 80% of the discharge occurs between late June and early September (Fig. 2). However, the total annual discharge varies significantly and is highly dependent on annual precipitation (Fig. 3), resulting in large standard deviations in monthly averages, particularly in summer months (Fig. 2). Since 2000, on average the dam has been opened every 1.7 days during the summer months for 154 min. resulting in an average total discharge of 10.4 × 106 m3 per dam release, and opened every 7.4 days during the dry season for 123 min. resulting in an average total discharge of 2.6 × 106 m3 per dam release (Kang et al., 2009 and Rhew and Lee, 2011).

Moreover the typical environments characterized by such events

Moreover, the typical environments characterized by such events are continental margins, that BMS-354825 especially in the Mediterranean Sea are located very close to populated and industrialized coasts. As confirmed by these simulations, the tsunami takes few tens of seconds to reach the coast after the sea surface perturbation has been triggered by the slide. An efficient tsunami early warning system could help mitigate the effects of such occurrences in populated areas, but the very short lead time might be insufficient to detect the threat (especially if a central national warning center has to manage the emergency), launch the alarm, and evacuate the population. Only few operations are leaf primordia possible, such as automatic switch-off of crucial industrial plants. The hazard posed by small coastal landslides requires then to be managed differently, by mapping the possible sources (as the mentioned MaGIC project did for the Italian coasts), by evaluating their tsunamigenic potential, by studying resonance conditions of the basins in order to avoid wave amplification effects and by protecting infrastructures and harbors with marine engineering works.

The AOM rates measured in this study were additionally used

Hundreds of high-backscatter patches at the seafloor were detected in multibeam backscatter images in an area located in the Central Province at the Nile Deep Sea Fan (NDSF) comprising about 225 km2. Detailed investigations of four of these structures confirmed that PSI authigenic carbonates caused the high backscatter and that hydrocarbon seepage occurs at these sites. A systematic hydroacoustic survey in 2009 revealed that gas bubble emissions occurred from 8% of the high-backscatter patches during the time of observation. Substantial amounts of gaseous and dissolved methane were found to escape the benthic microbial filter in uppermost sediments, with each structure emitting methane in the order of 0.23–48 × 106 mol a− 1. Assuming similar fluxes at the 163 hydroacoustically detected high-backscatter patches these amounts resulted in 37–7824 × 106 mol CH4 a− 1 discharged from the seafloor in the entire study area. However, the majority of methane discharged from the seafloor ends up diluted in the deep Eastern Mediterranean waters and, therefore, did not reach the upper mixed water layer. Previous studies revealed evidence for hundreds if not thousands of additional high-backscatter patches on the NDSF. These should be taken into account when it comes to estimates of methane amounts being transported from the sediments into the hydrosphere either as gas bubbles or dissolved in porewater.