For second-order multi-agent systems, most mentioned references are required the velocity measurements to implement the consensus protocols. Unfortunately, this requirement is not always satisfied in reality because the velocity measurements are inaccurate or it PI103 is not contained with constrains in space, cost and weight. Thus, it is meaningful to design the consensus protocols only with the position information. To achieve the control goal, the observers are usually adopted in protocol to estimate unmeasured velocity variables. To track the leader with unmeasured velocity, a distributed protocol was proposed by  for each first-order following-agents based on a velocity observer, which was generalized for the second-order following-agents to track the active leader in . The coordinated tracking protocol was presented in  with only position measurements. In , the authors proposed consensus protocol based on velocity filters for second-order multi-agent systems with nonlinear dynamics. A distributed observer-based protocol was provided for the first-order following-agents to track the general active leader in , whose result was extended to the time-delay case in . To track the accelerated motion leader, a distributed observer-based protocol for the second-order follower-agents was proposed by . For leader-following consensus problem with general linear dynamics, an observer-based protocol framework was proposed by . The distributed reduced-order observed-based protocols were proposed in , which was generalized to solve leader-following consensus problem under switching topology in . Generally, in most the mentioned papers, the gain matrices used in the consensus protocols are decoupled from the interaction topology, but the nonzero Laplacian eigenvalue with the smallest real part associated with interaction topology plays a key role to design the coupling parameters of the consensus protocols. Unfortunately, the eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix belongs to the global information in the sense that each agent has to know the entire interaction topology to compute it. Even if the entire interaction topology is known, greenhouse effect is not an easy work to compute the eigenvalue with the large scale interaction topology. Strictly speaking, almost all consensus protocols proposed in the above-mentioned references cannot be implemented in a fully distributed fashion. To overcome this limitation, distributed adaptive approach to design the coupling parameters was investigated by  and .
Evidence from neuroimaging in this section has shown that there are both common and distinct Delanzomib regions subserving EP and ToM (Chakrabarti et al., 2006 and Lee and Siegle, 2009). In summary, affective ToM (i.e. which bears some resemblance to EP) and cognitive ToM, partly share neural correlates but can also be differentiated. We have seen that common regions include the amygdala, those regions classically associated with ToM including medial PFC and parts of the temporal lobe (temporal pole, temporo-parietal junction), with further possible sites of convergence in more lateral dorsal PFC regions and lateral parts of the temporal lobe (superior temporal sulcus, middle temporal gyrus). Differences in neuroanatomy could reflect differences in the cognitive operations required for EP and ToM, but these differences could also arise because the neuroanatomy of ToM depends on the specific type of ToM concerned (Hynes et al., 2006), and the neuroanatomy of EP depends on which valence of emotion cues are processed (Blair, 2005).
Increased 5-HIAA levels in the putamen and in the dorsal horn of the FIIN-2were positively related to increased CSF iron levels (r2 = 0.71 and r2 = 0.45 respectively, p ventral horn did not appear to be linked to decreased Hgb levels, there was a positive relationship with decreased serum iron concentrations (r2 = 0.56, p FIIN-2 are expressed as pg/mg of tissue. Iron and HGB levels are expressed as μmol/L and g/dL, respectively. 5-HT = serotonin, CSF = cerebrospinal fluid, HGB = hemoglobin. Figure options There was a significant relationship between increased CSF iron concentrations and decreased 5-HT levels in the substantia nigra (r2 = 0.44; p iron (A, D, G), serum iron (B, E, and H) and HGB (C, F, I) levels. 5-HIAA concentrations in the putamen and the dorsal and ventral horns of the spinal cord are expressed as pg/mg of tissue. Iron and HGB levels are expressed as μmol/L and g/dL, respectively. 5-HIAA = 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, CSF = cerebrospinal fluid, HGB = hemoglobin.