The dietary fiber solution processed with dynamic high pressure microfluidization at 100 MPa can be applied to make quickly dissolvable edible films. The water-solubility (WS), water vapor permeability (WVP) and oil permeability (OP) of dietary fiber films were influenced by the liquid–solid ratio of dietary fiber solution, thickener, beeswax and glycerol at different levels of concentration. The order of the four factors\’ effect on the film properties ITK inhibitor thickener > beeswax > glycerol > liquid–solid ratio of dietary fiber solution. The optimum prescription was as follows: the liquid–solid ratio of dietary fiber solution was 35 mL distilled water/g DF, and the concentrations of thickener, beeswax and glycerol were 1 g, 1 g and 1.25 g per 100 g suspension, respectively. The optimum mixture proportions would yield an molecules edible film with WS = 19 s g−1, WVP = 4.348 × 10−12 gm−1 s−1 Pa−1 and OP = 4.06 × 10−3 gm−1 d−1. The films have excellent barrier properties and solubility, and could be used particularly as the packaging material for instant noodle seasoning bags and instant solid beverages, and as casing for other foods such as sausages, biscuits and candy. The mechanical properties of films should be determined in the future.
Equivalent diameters of starch granules varied little among the hybrids, from a minimum of 11.1 μm for Bc 462 to a maximum of 12.9 μm for Klipan. These data are similar to those of Molenda et al. (2006), who Ruxolitinib reported a de0.5 of 13.8 μm for maize starch. As expected, increasing equivalent diameter correlated positively with projected area, perimeter, MaxFeret and MinFeret in the raw material (data not shown). These other geometric properties varied among the hybrids as follows: projected area, 112–135 μm2; perimeter, 35–43 μm; MaxFeret, 12–14 μm; and MinFeret, 10–12 μm.
The shape of starch granules was characterised by circularity and elongation whereas circularity correlated positively with equivalent diameter (r = 0.5530). It appears that aggregates of starch granules had more spherical shapes, which is in agreement with the conclusions of Jane, Kasemsuwan, Leas, Zobel, and Robyt (1994), who reported that small starch granules from various origins had an irregular, polygonal shape. As expected, elongation values of starch granules, which varied from 1.3 (Bc 5982) to 1.5 (Pajdas), correlated negatively with circularity (r = −0.4407), which ranged from 0.90 to 0.92.
2.7. Peptide content
The peptide content of the hydrolysates was determined with slight modifications to the method described by Church, Swaisgood, Porter, and Catignani (1983) using INCB 018424 o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) spectrophotometric assay. The fresh OPA reagent was prepared by mixing 25 ml of 100 mM sodium tetra hydroborate, 2.5 ml of 20% (w/w) sodium dodecyl sulfate, 40 ml of OPA sodium (dissolved in 1 ml of methanol) and 100 ml of β–mercaptoethanol and then adjusting the volume to 50 ml with deionized water. Fifty microliters of each hydrolysate, containing 5–100 μg proteins were mixed with 2 ml of OPA reagent and incubated for 2 min at ambient temperature. The absorbance at 340 nm was measured with spectrophotometer. Casein (tryptone) in a phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) was used as the standard to quantify the peptide content.
2.8. Determination of the antioxidant activity of SPH
2.8.1. DPPH radical scavenging activity