Similar conclusions can be drawn while

Similar conclusions can be drawn while analysing the log(C2/C3+C4) versus log(C1/C2+C3) plot (Fig. 6). This diagram contains the points representing the soil gas samples having the anomalous values of total alkanes C2–C4 (i.e., above the background value). Additionally, there are also points illustrating the hydrocarbon compositions of gases from deposits (G-1, G-3, MN, CN). Their pattern in the diagram compared with that representing the soil gases allows us to conclude that hydrocarbons detected in the near-surface zone have migrated from the deep accumulations. Migration of gaseous hydrocarbons is very complicated (e.g., Matthews, 1996 and Klusman and Saeed, 1996). All the possible modes of secondary GTP-Binding Protein Fragment may occur simultaneously, in proportions and intensities controlled by geological conditions. Diffusion is a process, which initiates the hydrocarbons seepage from deep-seated sources (e.g. Leythaeuser et al., 1983 and Krooss and Leythaeuser, 1996). If permeability of overburden increase, the hydrocarbons movement controlled at the initial stage by diffusion, becomes gradually more and more ruled by effusion principles (e.g., Tedesco, 1995, Saunders et al., 1999 and Jones et al., 2000). We follow the opinion (see: Sokolov and Grigoriev, 1962, Starobinetz, 1986 and Jones et al., 2000) that during migration hydrocarbons flux becomes gradually depleted in still heavier compounds. As a result, the amounts of migrating gases almost always decrease in the following order: methane > ethane > propane > butane. As a result, the flux of hydrocarbons reaching the near-surface zone becomes depleted in larger (heavier) molecules. The effects of this process are illustrated in the diagram (Fig. 6) as a “relocation” of points representing the soil gases towards the higher values of the ratio. Points representing the soil gases are grouped into the two clusters. Cluster A comprises samples in which total C2–C4 alkanes concentrations are below 3σ. Moreover, this cluster is characterized by a clear depletion in heavier alkanes (C3H8 and C4H10). Such relations are known from the Minkowice gas field (Table 1). Taking into consideration the effects of depleting in larger (heavier) molecules during the microseepage, it can be suggested that the cluster A represents most likely the soil gas of Carboniferous origin. The cluster B is larger and comprises mostly the samples of total C2–C4 alkanes concentrations over 3σ (Fig. 6). Consequently, we conclude that this is also the effect of microseepage but from gas-condensate or oil and associated gas accumulations. Also, the oil accumulations located at greater depths (e.g. in Devonian formations) cannot be excluded. In this case, the flux of hydrocarbons which reaches the surface is highly depleted in heavier components due to relatively long migration distance. It is illustrated by a shift of points in the diagram into the gas condensate field (Fig. 6).

Sep Jun Sep NA Oct Aug NA Baltic Sea

Sep., 2008 25.6 D609 ± 4.0 1.5 ± 0.1 617 ± 122 3.0 ± 2.9 5.1 ± 2.3 27.7 ± 0.3
Jun., 2009 24.0 ± 1.4 1.4 ± 0.1 524 ± 59 4.7 ± 3.7 7.4 ± 3.3 24.4 ± 0.2
Sep., 2009 22.2 ± 2.8 NA⁎⁎ 527 ± 71 2.1 ± 0.7 5.2 ± 0.9 28.1 ± 0.5
Oct., 2009 18.0 ± 4.6 1.4 ± 0.2 368 ± 129 2.2 ± 1.7 6.6 ± 2.3 19.6 ± 4.3
Aug., 2010 39.2 ± 6.8 NA⁎⁎ 934 ± 159 6.8 ± 5.1 6.2 ± 2.4 28.3 ± 0.4
Baltic Sea Jul. 1997 11 17.6 1.7 250 1.6 6.2 17.4 Wangberg et al., 2001
Mar. 1998 9 17.4 1.4 130 0.8 8.5 3.3
Yellow Sea Oct. 2008 27.0 seed coat ± 16.4 2.36 ± 0.66 350 ± 260 0.89 ± 1.84 3.8 ± 1.9 18.8 ± 0.46 Ci et al., 2010
Jan. 2009 16.0 ± 6.0 3.06 ± 0.95 96 ± 39 − 0.06 ± 0.64 2.8 ± 2.1 2.4 ± 0.4
Apr.–May 2009 23.0 ± 8.7 2.83 ± 0.94 200 ± 98 0.32 ± 0.71 3.2 ± 2.0 8.0 ± 0.5
Aug. 2009 69.0 ± 23.3 1.98 ± 0.97 1100 ± 592 0.88 ± 1.38 1.5 ± 1.0 19.0 ± 0.9
Long Island Sound in U.S.A. Feb. 1996 8 47 ± 7 2.8 283 ± 66 1.8 4.5 Rolfhus and Fitzgerald, 2001

The surface calculated with the

The surface calculated with the new correction algorithm do not provide points correlated with an unacceptable discontinuity check result (DC = 1). These regions occur in relation to the ratio of the probe tip diameter and diameter of the local internal curvature of the measured surface. When measuring using a 1.5 mm tip diameter there is only one small area of measurement discontinuity ( Fig. 4). Other areas EGFR 985-996 of the measured section of a pump casing are available for contact of the probe tip. Things change when we use a larger tip diameter of 3 mm ( Fig. 5). In this EGFR 985-996 case, there are visible two areas detected by the measurement discontinuity check algorithm. Similarly, the new algorithm detects three areas for a tip of 5 mm ( Fig. 6). Fig. 7 shows experimentally obtained results of number of identified discontinuities vs. different values of QDC parameter. The observed QDC influence is centromere different while measured with a 1.5, 3 and 5 mm stylus ball diameter. This is obvious, because discontinuity of scanning measurement occurs only when a local radius of curvature of the measured surface is smaller than the radius of the spherical probe tip.